Culinary Vocabulary


Straight Outta My Kitchen’s Culinary Vocabulary

* Appearing In Alphabetic Order 


  • A la minut – Cooked to order.

  • A La, Au, Aux – French terms meaning “served with” or “served in the manner of”.

  • Abalone – A mollusc, related to a sea snail, similar in flavor to a clam. It may be cooked by various methods and is best suited to very long or very short cooking times. Also called “Awabi” in Japanese cuisine and “Loco” in South American cuisine. It has been over-harvested and is very expensive when available. A small amount is being commercial raised.

  • Achar – Very spice relish from the cuisine of India and the Caribbean Islands. Achar may be made from fruits and vegetables.

  • Acidulated Water – A mixture of water and a small amount of vinegar or lemon juice, used to purify or prevent discoloration in meats and vegetables.

  • Adobo – Paste or sauce made from chiles, vinegar, and other seasonings. Used as a seasoning for meats.

  • Adzuki Beans – Small reddish brown beans.

  • Agnolotti – A small half-moon shaped ravioli.

  • Aiguillette – Long, thin slices of poultry breast or some other meats.

  • Ail – French word for “garlic”.

  • Aioli – A cold egg and oil emulsion with olive oil and garlic. Many variations of this sauce are made. See the definition under rouille.

  • Ajo – Spanish word for “garlic”.

  • Al Carbon – Spanish term for a dish relating to grilled or containing meat.

  • Al Dente – A term, meaning “to the bite”, used to describe the correct degree of doneness for pasta and vegetables. This is not exactly a procedure, but a sensory evaluation for deciding when the food is finished cooking. Pasta should retain a slight resistance when biting into it, but should not have a hard center.

  • Al Forno – Italian term describing a dish cooked in the oven.

  • Al Pastor – A term used in Spanish and Italian referring to a dish cooked in the style of shepherd cooking, usually over a grill or spit.

  • Albumen – The protein of egg whites.

  • Alfredo – A pasta sauce originally consisting of butter, cream, and the finest parmesan cheese available. Modern versions add garlic, peas, and less expensive parmesan. All of these will make fine sauces, but nothing can compare to the original version.

  • Allemande – A sauce made of Veloute (usually veal), a liaison and lemon juice.

  • Almond Paste – A sweet paste made from finely ground blanched almonds mixed with powdered sugar and enough glucose or syrup to bind it together.

  • Amandine – A French term for any dish with almonds. Alternate spelling is almondine.

  • Amchoor – Sour, unripe mangoes that are dried and sold in slices and powder. Its primary use is in Indian cooking, giving foods a sweet/sour flavor.

  • Anchoiade – A dip made of pureed anchovies mixed with garlic and olive oil. Raw vegetables and bread are served with this dip.

  • Andouille – A sausage made from the stomach and the intestines of pork. The sausage is dried and smoked, then boiled or steamed to finish cooking.  Andouille sausage is used regularly in Creole cooking, but it is popular in French cooking as well. The Creole version of this sausage is much spicier than those made in France.

  • Angelica – Licorice flavored stalks from these plants are candied and used primarily in pastry making. Angelica is also used to flavor liqueurs.

  • Anna Potatoes – The name for a potato pancake made of thin slices of potato which are assembled in concentric circles and cooked with liberal amounts of butter. The cake is then baked until crisp and golden brown.

  • Annatto Seed – Also called achiote seed, these seeds are used as a food coloring and a spice in cooking from Latin America and Southeast Asia.

  • Antipasto – ‘The Italian word for snacks served before a meal. These are dishes to peak one’s appetite, not quench it. This may consist of one or more dishes of all types of food. Common elements of an antipasto table are cured meats and salamis, olives, marinated vegetables, and cheese.

  • Arrowroot – This is a starch similar in appearance and qualities as cornstarch.

  • Arroz – Portuguese word for “rice”. It is not a Spanish term.

  • Artichoke – A name shared by three unrelated plants: the globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke and Chinese (or Japanese) artichoke. Considered the true artichoke, the globe artichoke is cultivated mainly in California’s mid-coastal region. It is the bud of a large plant from the thistle family and has tough, petal shaped leaves. They are available year-round, with the peak season March through May. Buy deep green, heavy for their size artichokes with a tight leaf formation.

  • Asafetida – A spice used in India and the Middle East for cooking or as a condiment to be sprinkled over food after it has been cooked. It has a bitter taste and a pungent aroma similar to garlic and truffles.

  • Aspic – A jelly made from stock, fumet, wine, or fruit juices used to mold dishes. These preparations are often elaborately decorated for use on buffets. Both savory and sweet foods are set in aspic. Cubes of aspic are a common garnish to fine pGtTs and foie gras.

  • Aubergine – The French word for eggplant.

  • Aurore – This is a term associated with sauces that have tomato puree or concasse added to it.

  • Baba – A small cake made from enriched yeast dough, often flavored with candied fruits, and soaked with a rum or Kirsch syrup after baking. This dough is also used to make the larger savarin.

  • Baekenhofe – An alsacienne stew made of pork, lamb, and beef layered with potatoes and onions. The meat is first marinated in wine and herbs for a minimum of 24 hours, then assembled and baked in a paste sealed casserole until the meat is buttery tender. The juices are reduced and the top is browned under the broiler. Crisp bacon and fried leeks are used to garnish this dish.

  • Bagna Cauda – Meaning “warm bath”, this is a dip made of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic. Unlike the French anchoiade, this is served warm and is not emulsified. Bread and raw vegetables are served with this dip.

  • Bain-Marie – Simply a water bath. It consists of placing a container of food in a large, shallow pan of warm water, which surrounds the food with gentle heat. The food may be cooked in this manner either in an oven or on top of a range. This technique is designed to cook delicate dishes such as custards, sauces and savory mousses without breaking or curdling them. It can also be used to keep foods warm.

  • Baked Alaska – A dessert comprised of sponge cake topped with ice cream and covered with meringue. The dessert is then placed in a hot oven to brown the meringue before the ice cream can melt.

  • Baking Powder – A leavening agent combining an acid with bicarbonate of soda to form the gas which enables baked products to rise. The chemical reaction between the acid and the soda produces carbon dioxide to leaven the product. The most common form of baking powder is the double acting variety, which produces gas upon mixing and again at high temperatures. Always store this tightly covered.

  • Baking Soda – A leavening agent which is used as an essential ingredient in baking powder. When used alone as a leavened, recipes must include some type of acid to neutralise the resulting sodium carbonate in the finished product. Buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and citrus juice are adequate acid to use. You may also use baking soda to help neutralise the acid in recipes that call for large amounts of fruit.

  • Baklava – A very sweet dessert made of layers of flaky pastry filled with a mixture of ground nuts and sugar. The pastry is sliced, baked, and brushed with a honey syrup flavoured with lemon or rose water.

  • Ballottine – A pÉtÇ-like dish in which force meat is stuffed back into the boneless carcass from which the force meat was made. This may include fish, poultry, game birds, or even some cuts of meat. The mixture is wrapped in muslin and poached or braised. These dishes may be served hot or cold.

  • Balsamic Vinegar – A wonderfully fragrant vinegar made from the juice of Trebbiano grapes. The juice is then heated and aged in wooden barrels, evaporating and concentrating in flavor. The resulting vinegar is deep rich brown with a sweet and sour flavor. Well aged balsamic vinegar’s are very costly, some reaching an astronomical $200 an ounce. Most balsamic vinegar’s found in the US are not “aceto balsamico tradizionale”, but un aged balsamic vinegar. These vinegar’s lack in body and flavor that the well-aged balsamic vinegar’s possess, yet have a fair sweet and sour balance of flavor not found in any other vinegar’s.

  • Bangers – British colloquial term for sausages. “Bangers and mash” are sausages and mashed potatoes.

  • Barding – The practice of wrapping lean cuts of meat to be with thin slices of back fat. The converse of this is larding, in which long strips of fat are inserted into the cut of meat to keep it moist during cooking.

  • Barquette – A small oval shaped pastry shell with either sweet or savory fillings.

  • Basquaise – Food prepared in the style of Basque which often includes tomatoes and sweet or hot red peppers.

  • Bavarian Cream – A cream made with pastry cream lightened with whipped cream and stabilized with gelatin. This cream may then be poured into molds, or used as a filling for cakes or pastries. Bavarian cream is often flavored with fruit purees or alcohol.

  • Bearnaise – This is the most notable of all the hollandaise sauce variations. It is made with a wine and vinegar reduction flavoured with tarragon. This sauce makes a good companion to grilled meats and fish.

  • Bechamel Sauce – This is a white sauce made with milk or cream and thickened with a roux. Bechamel sauce is generally used as a base for other more complex sauces, though it may be used alone for binding or moistening.

  • Beignet – A French term for a type of doughnut. Dough or batter is deep fried and dusted w/sugar or glazed with a flavoured syrup.

  • Belle Helene – Best known as the name of a dessert with poached pears, ice cream, and chocolate sauce. It is also a term used in French cookery as a name for a garnish to grilled meat dishes.

  • Benne Seeds – An African term for sesame seeds.

  • Beurre Blanc – An emulsified sauce made of a wine or vinegar reduction blended with softened butter. This may be flavoured in many ways, for fish, vegetables, and poultry dishes. This is a very tricky sauce and does not hold for long periods of time. Because of this, modern versions add a touch of cream to stabilise the sauce for longer periods of time.

  • Beurre Manie – A mixture of flour and butter kneaded to a smooth paste. This is then used in small quantities to adjust the thickness of sauces and stews. The sauce must then be boiled briefly to remove the starchy taste of the flour. For this reason, beurre manieÇ is used in situations where only a small quantity is needed. 

  • Biscotti – Dry Italian cookies flavoured with almonds, chocolate, or anise seed, used for dunking in coffee and sweet dessert wine.

  • Bisque – A rich shellfish soup made with the shells of the animal. The soup is enriched with cream and Cognac and garnished with pieces of the shellfish meat. This name is also used to describe vegetable soups prepared in the same manner as shellfish bisque’s.

  • Bistella – See pastilla for a definition.

  • Blanch – Cooking foods in boiling water for a brief period of time. This applies primarily to vegetables so as to reduce their final cooking time. But blanching may be done to fish or meat as well.

  • Blanquette – A stew of white meats, usually veal, without initial browning. The sauce is thickened with roux and enriched with cream.

  • Blini – A small pancake made of buckwheat flour and leavened with yeast. These pancakes are often brushed with large amounts of melted butter and served with caviar and sour cream. Other versions may be made of vegetable purees or semolina flour.

  • Blintz – A stuffed crepe or thin pancake. The filling is usually made of a fresh cheese or cottage cheese, and often topped with fresh fruit or fruit preserves.

  • Boletus – A family of wild mushrooms known for their rich taste and meaty texture. Porcinis and cepes are two members of this family of mushroom.

  • Bollito Misto – An Italian stew consisting of various cuts of meat, including zampone, boiled in a rich broth with vegetables. The whole dish is served with cornichons, pickled onions and a variation of chutney called mostarda di Cremona. These are whole or large pieces of fruit cooked in a spicy mustard flavoured syrup. Other common sauces are salsa verde and mayonnaise.

  • Bordelaise – This is a term primarily used to describe a brown sauce that includes shallots and red wine. Some versions of this sauce include slices of bone marrow added at the end of cooking. Fish dishes with this name will be cooked with white Bordeaux wine.

  • Borscht – A rich soup from Eastern Europe containing beets or cabbage. Other ingredients may include potatoes, beans, meat or sausage. The best known of these soups is a cold version based on beets and served with sour cream, but hot versions are very common.

  • Bouchee – A small round puff pastry shell used for sweet or savoury fillings.

  • Boudin – Smooth sausages of two types. Boudin blanc contain veal, pork, and chicken. Boudin noir are made with blood and rice or potatoes. The latter type are popular in European and Creole cooking.

  • Bouillabaisse – A rich fish stew from southern France. This was once a poor man’s meal made of any fish available. Modern versions include lobster and shrimp. The broth is flavored with garlic, orange peel, fennel, and saffron. Olive oil is added to the stew and rapidly boiled to blend it into the broth. The stew is served with croutons and rouille, a variation of aioli.

  • Bouquet Garni – A sachet of herbs, containing parsley, thyme, and bay leaf. Variations may include rosemary, marjoram, fennel, leeks, celery leaves, and black pepper.

  • Bourguignonne – Foods cooked in the style of Burgundy. This includes red wine, mushrooms, pearl onions, and bacon.

  • Bourride – Another fish stew from southern France. Here the broth, in which large pieces of fish are poached, is strained and thickened with aioli. The two are then served together in shallow bowls with bread or croutons.

  • Bran – The outer husk of grains such as wheat, containing a high percentage of fiber. White flours have the bran removed. Whole wheat flours may contain all or part of the bran.

  • Brandade – A puree of salt cod mixed with olive oil and potatoes. Another version of brandade is covered with Gruyere cheese and browned in the oven. Both are served with croutons.

  • Bresaola – A cured and dried beef filet from Italy with a more delicate texture but stronger flavor than that of prosciutto. A Swiss version of this is called bundnerfleisch. This style is pressed into a rectangular shape and has a bit drier texture than bresaola. Both are served thinly sliced with bread and fruit or pickled vegetables.

  • Brioche – A very rich bread with butter and eggs. Brioche is baked in many shapes though the brioche e tete is best known. The dough can be flavored with nuts or candied fruit, as well as herbs and spices. It may also be used to wrap foods like coulibiac. Slices of toasted brioche are the perfect companion to foie gras and gravlax.

  • Brochette – Skewers of meat, fish, or vegetables that are grilled over a flame and simply served.

  • Brunoise – A very fine dice usually applied to vegetables.

  • Bruschetta – Grilled slices of bread brushed with olive oil and fresh garlic. This was the original garlic bread.

  • Bucatini – Long, narrow tubes of pasta usually served with a hearty meat sauce.

  • Buffet – A vast array of hot and cold foods, often elaborately garnished. 

  • Bulghur – Cracked wheat made from the whole kernel that has been cooked and dried. Most commonly used in breads and tabbouleh salad.

  • Butter – A cooking and eating fat that is made from sweet or sour cream and, by federal law, must contain a minimum of 80% butterfat. Butter absorbs odours easily and is highly susceptible to rancidity. To avoid either of these problems, store butter in the refrigerator no longer than 2 weeks. For longer storage, butter may be frozen for up to 6 months without deterioration.

  • Butter-Cultured – Cultured butter is butter churned from cultured cream (cream fraiche). Most butter produced in the U.S. before 1920 was cultured butter, but in the 20’s, the U.S. Government guaranteed the sale of every pound of butter produced, so quality became a non-issue and sweet cream butter prevailed.

  • Buttermilk – Originally a by-product of butter making, buttermilk is commercially produced by adding lactic acid culture to skimmed or partially skimmed milk.

  • Calabacita – A variety of summer squash found in Latin American and Mexican cooking.

  • Calamari – The Italian word for squid.

  • Caldo Verde – A Portuguese soup made from a sharp flavored cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil. Sausage is then cooked in the soup.

  • Calzone – A half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.

  • Canape – Small open-faced sandwiches served as snacks or for lunch. They may be served hot or cold, but they are often elaborately garnished.

  • Cannelloni – An Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this use thin pancakes, called crespelle, which are similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the same manner as the pasta.

  • Cannoli – A crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavorings for this cheese mixture.

  • Caper – The pickled bud from the caper bush which is used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and nicoise salad.

  • Capicolla – A coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.

  • Capon – A castrated chicken that is savoured for its delicate taste and texture. Once castrated, the chicken would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy flesh. This method of raising chickens is not practised much anymore, since most chickens are butchered at a young age and still very tender.

  • Caponata – Best known as a spread or cold salad containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins, and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive oil. Modern variations will add other vegetables such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.

  • Capsicum – The family name for sweet and hot peppers.

  • Carbonara – An ultra-rich pasta sauce consisting of pancetta, eggs, and parmesan cheese. Actually less of a sauce than a preparation, hot pasta is tossed with the rendered pancetta fat, the eggs, and then the cheese. Crisp pancetta and black pepper are tossed into the pasta just before serving.

  • Cardamom – Aromatic seeds used for baking, flavoring coffee and exotic Scandinavian and Indian dishes. Excellent when freshly ground. Botanical name: Elettaria cardamomum.

  • Cardinal – Fish dishes which have sauces made with lobster fumet and are garnished with lobster meat.

  • Cardoon – A vegetable from the artichoke family that looks like celery. Cardoons may be eaten raw or cooked and served like any vegetable.

  • Carob – The seed from the carob tree which is dried, ground, and used primarily as a substitute for chocolate.

  • Carpaccio – An Italian dish made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with olive oil and parmesan cheese. Slices of raw white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.

  • Cassoulet – A dish from southwest France consisting of white beans and an assortment of meats like confit, lamb, pork, and Toulouse sausage. The dish is enriched with large amounts of duck fat and is baked until the top is brown and crispy. Variations of this dish include seafood and lentils. This dish is very substantial and needs nothing else to be served with it but a bitter green salad to cut through the richness.

  • Caul Fat – The stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crepinettes.

  • Caviar – These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar is determined by the size and colour of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three types of caviar, are dark Gray in colour and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga. Sevruga caviar are the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also Gray in colour. Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier flavor. The term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lump fish, and whitefish are not considered caviar, regardless of their label. They should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their flavors will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.

  • Celeriac – The root of a type of celery with a firm texture and a clean, sweet flavor of celery.

  • Cepes – A wild mushroom of the boletus family known for their full flavor and meaty texture.

  • Cervil – A mild-flavoured member of the parsley family, this aromatic herb has curly, dark green leaves with an elusive anise flavor. Though most chervil is cultivated for its leaves alone, the root is edible and was, in fact, enjoyed by early Greeks and Romans. Today it is available dried but has the best flavor when fresh. Both forms can be found in most supermarkets. It can be used like parsley but its delicate flavor can be diminished when boiled.

  • Chai – The Indian name for tea, often served with milk and sugar.

  • Chanterelle – A wild mushroom with a golden colour and a funnel-shaped cap. The whole mushroom is edible and is savoured for its exquisite flavor and firm texture when cooked. 

  • Chantilly – This is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavoured with vanilla. The term may also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This includes both sweet and savoury sauces.

  • Chapati – A whole wheat Indian flatbread that can be grilled or fried. 

  • Charcuterie – The French word for the variety of pork preparations that are cured, smoked, or processed. This includes sausages, hams, pates, and rillettes. This term may also imply the shop in which these products are sold and the butchers who produce it.

  • Charlotte – The name for two different desserts. The first preparation is made of slices of bread which are lined in a mold, filled with fruit, and baked until the bread acquires a golden colour and crisp texture. The second version, similar to the first, lines a mold with cake or lady fingers and is filled with a Bavarian cream. These may also be filled with whipped cream or even a fruit mousse. More elaborate versions layer the cake with jam, then slices of this cake is used to line the mold.

  • Charmoula – A sauce and marinade used in Middle Eastern cooking made of stewed onions flavoured with vinegar, honey and a spice mixture called “rasel hanout”. This is a complex spice mixture containing cinnamon, black pepper, cloves, cumin and sometimes paprika and coriander. This sauce is used on meat and fish and can even be adjusted to make a unique vinaigrette.

  • Chateaubriand – A thick slice of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, grilled or saut‚ed and simply sauced. Many restaurants claim their chateaubriand to be the head of the tenderloin, cut for two, which is roasted and carved tableside.

  • Chaud-Froid – Meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold, masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets. Modern tastes have moved away from this style of food, opting for cleaner, less adulterated flavors.

  • Chayote – A pear shaped squash, used in Latin American cooking, with a taste of zucchini. Chayote may be eaten raw or cooked as you would any summer squash.

  • Cherimoya – Also called the custard apple, this is a tropical fruit with a creamy texture and sweet pineapple flavor.

  • Chevre – The French word for goat, generally referring to goat’s milk cheeses.

  • Chiboust – A custard made originally as the filling for the gâteau Saint-Honor, consisting of pastry cream lightened with Italian meringue and stabilized with gelatin.

  • Chicharron – Crispy fried pigskin used in Mexican cooking for salads, fillings and snacks.

  • Chiffonade – A very fine julienne of vegetables usually associated with leafy herbs, lettuces, or greens.

  • Chilaquiles – A family style Mexican dish of re fried corn tortillas simmered in a sauce of tomatoes, chiles, and garlic. This is a highly seasoned dish, often served as a brunch or lunch dish with eggs or grilled meats.

  • Chili Rellenos – A Mexican dish consisting of a batter-fried, cheese stuffed, pablano chili pepper.

  • Chinois – French word for “Chinese”. Also refers to a “China Cap”, a very fine mesh, conical strainer.

  • Chipotle – A dried and smoked jalapeño which can be found dried or reconstituted and sold in tomato sauce. These chiles are extremely hot and caution should be taken when using them in cooking.

  • Chive – Related to the onion and leek, this fragrant herb has slender, vivid green, hollow stems. Chives have a mild onion flavor and are available fresh year-round. They are a good source of vitamin A and also contain a fair amount of potassium and calcium.

  • Chocolate – A product of cocoa beans in which the chocolate liquor is mixed with cocoa butter in various proportions to produce the different varieties of chocolate. Bitter chocolate has no additional ingredients added. Other varieties of chocolate have additional cocoa butter added, along with sugar, milk, and vanilla.

  • Chorizo – A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas of Spain and Portugal. Mexican versions contain a large variety of chiles and have a mealier texture and more complex flavor. Some of them even use fresh herbs giving it a green colour. Portugal makes a cousin to this sausage called the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter.

  • Choron – A variation of Bearnaise sauce with tomato puree or concasse added.

  • Choucroute – An Alsatian speciality consisting of sauerkraut that is simmered with assorted fresh and smoked meats and sausages. This is a grand dish served on huge platters so that diners may witness all of the components displayed at one time. The kraut is first washed, then seasoned with garlic, caraway seeds, and white wine. The meats are layered in the casserole with the kraut and cooked until all the meat is tender and the flavors have blended together. Pork sausages, smoked pork shanks and shoulders, and fresh pork loin are all used. A variation of this, though not actually called a choucroute, is a whole pheasant cooked in sauerkraut with champagne. There are other recipes that consist of solely fish in with the sauerkraut. This can be quite delicious if properly prepared.

  • Chutney – The name for a large range of sauces or relishes used in East Indian cooking. Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavor and are usually thin, smooth sauces. Cilantro, mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked chutneys have a deeper, broader flavor.

  • Cioppino – A rich fish stew from San Francisco made with shrimp, clams, mussels, crabs, and any available fish. The broth is flavoured with tomato, white wine, garlic, and chile flakes. This stew needs no other courses served but a simple green salad and a lot of sourdough bread.

  • Civet – A French stew usually containing game, though duck and goose are used. The meat is marinated in red wine for long periods of time, then stewed with pearl onions and bacon. The sauce was once thickened with blood, but that is a method not used much anymore.

  • Clafouti – A dessert of fruit, originally cherries, covered with a thick batter and baked until puffy. The dessert can be served hot or cold.

  • Clotted Cream – This speciality of Devon-shire, England (which is why it is also known as Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurised milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling the thickened cream is removed. It can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English “cream tea” consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to four days.

  • Cock-a-Leekie – A thick Scottish soup made with chicken, leeks, and barley. Modern versions have lightened up this soup by using a chicken broth garnished with leeks and barley.

  • Cocoa Powder – This is the dried powder formed from chocolate liquor after the cocoa butter content has been reduced. This mixture is then dried and ground into a fine powder. Dutch process cocoa has been treated with alkali to give a darker appearance and less bitter taste. Breakfast cocoa has sugar, milk solids, and other flavourings added to it.

  • Coconut Milk – This is not the liquid that is found in the centre of coconuts, but a thick liquid made by steeping fresh grated coconut in hot water. The hot water helps to extract the fat from the coconut meat, which carries so much of this flavor.

  • Coeur à la Crème – Meaning “the heart of the cream”, this is a soft cheese dessert where the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter and served with fruit and bread.

  • Coeur e la Creme – Meaning “the heart of the cream”, this is a soft cheese dessert where the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter and served with fruit and bread. Alternate versions use mixtures of ricotta and cream cheese and flavoured with liquor and citrus juice. This is then molded and served with a berry coulis.

  • Collard Greens – One of a variety of “greens” with a firm leaf and sharp flavor.

  • Colombo – A West Indian stew seasoned with a spice mixture of the same name. This is similar to curry powder, containing coriander, chiles, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and garlic. The stew may contain pork, chicken, or fish. Vegetables are cooked in the stew and rice and beans are served on the side.

  • Compote – Dried and fresh fruit cooked with sugar to a jam like consistency, brief enough to allow the fruit to retain their individual identity.

  • Concasse – The term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when referring to chopped tomatoes.

  • Conchiglie – Large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.

  • Confit – This is a preparation for meat to preserve it for long periods of time when fresh meat would be scarce. The meat is first salted to remove moisture. It is then cooked at the lowest of simmers, submerged in fat, until the meat is buttery tender. After the meat is cooled, it is stored in crocks and covered with the fat to prevent exposure to air. The whole crock is stored to help age the meat. During this aging period the meat develops a new flavor, completely different from its original state. When ready to eat, the meat is fried in a skillet or grilled until the skin is crisp and the meat is warmed through. Duck confit was once served with potatoes fried in the same duck fat as the confit. This practice is less popular now, but good companions to the confit are lentils or bitter green salads to balance the richness of the meat. Fatty meats such as duck, goose, and pork work best in confit. Confit is an indispensable component in cassoulet.

  • Consomme – A clarified broth used as a base for sauces and soups.

  • Coppa – The loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced for antipasto or on sandwiches or pizza.

  • Coq au Vin – A chicken stew flavoured with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions.

  • Corn Syrup – Dextrose, maltose, or glucose obtained by converting starch with acids. This syrup is used in baking, primarily to prevent the crystallisation of sugar.

  • Cotechino – A fresh pork sausage with a very fine consistency and delicate flavor. It contains a small amount of ground pork rind, coteca in Italian, thus giving it the name.It is a large sausage, about 3″X 9″, used in stews and pasta e fagioli.

  • Coulibiac – A Russian pie made with alternating layers of salmon, hard cooked eggs, rice, mushroom duxelle, and vesiga. Vesiga is the spinal marrow of sturgeon and has all but disappeared from commercial markets. The dough used to wrap the pie can be pate brisee, puff pastry, or brioche dough. Crepes are often layered in the bottom of the pie. 

  • Coulis – A puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce or flavoring agent to other sauces or soups. As sauces, they are thinned down just enough to reach the proper consistency, but not so much as to alter the intense flavor of the puree.

  • Courgette – The French word for zucchini.

  • Court-Bouillon – A well-seasoned cooking liquor, sometimes made with broth, used to poach fish and shellfish. Court-bouillons mainly consist of wine, water, herbs, and onion. Vinegar is sometimes added to the bouillon to help set the fish and enhance its white color. Truite au bleu is a perfect example of this technique.

  • Couscous – A pasta made from semolina (which itself is a flour made from Durum wheat).The name couscous also refers to the famous Maghreb dish in which semolina or cracked wheat is steamed in the perforated top part of a special pot called a couscoussiere, while chunks of meat (usually chicken or lamb), various vegetables, chickpeas and raisins simmer in the bottom part. The cooked semolina is heaped onto a large platter, with the meats and vegetables placed on top. Diners use chunks of bread to scoop the couscous from the platter.

  • Crackling – Crispy pieces of skin remaining after the fat is rendered. Commonly made from pork, duck, and goose it is used in salads, stuffings, and seasonings.

  • Cream – This is the portion of milk that rises to the top when milk has not been homogenised. Cream is defined by its varying amounts of butterfat content. Half and half cream is a mixture of milk and cream, resulting in a butterfat content of 12%. Sour cream and light cream have a butterfat content of 18-20%. Heavy cream will have no less than 30% butterfat, averages around 36%, and will go as high as 40%.

  • Creme Anglaise – This is a custard made of milk and eggs. It is used both as a sauce for desserts and as a base for mousses.

  • Creme Caramel – Like the Spanish flan, this is a baked custard that is flavoured with caramel. When the dish is inverted, the caramel creates a sauce for the dessert.

  • Creme Fraiche – A naturally thickened fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavor and rich texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place until thickened.

  • Creme Patissierre – This is a thick pastry cream made of milk, eggs, and flour. Other versions of this use all or a portion of cornstarch.

  • Crepaze – A cake made of crepes layered with vegetables, cheese, or ham. The cake is then baked to blend the flavors and help set it so that it may be cut into wedges.

  • Crepe – A very thin pancake used for sweet and savoury fillings.

  • Crepinette – A small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat. They are filled with ground pork, veal, or poultry and fried or grilled. Some are shaped into balls. You may also use cooked meat or vegetables to flavor a forcemeat in the crepinette.

  • Crespelle – An Italian pancake, similar to a crêpe, used in place of pasta in preparations of dishes like manicotti and cannelloni.

  • Croque-Monsieur – The French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich with Gruyere cheese.

  • Croquembouche – A grand dessert made up of cream puffs that are dipped in caramel and assembled into a large pyramid shape. The whole dessert is then brushed with more caramel and elaborately decorated.

  • Croquette – A thick patty made up of cooked foods. These patties or balls are breaded and fried or sauteed. Vegetables, fish, or meat may be used in croquettes.

  • Crostini – Toasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes, pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian version of canap‚s.

  • Croutons – Bread that is cut into smaller pieces and toasted or fried until crisp. This includes cubes for salads and slices for soups and hors d’oeuvres.

  • Crudite – A selection of raw vegetables served with a dip.

  • Culatello – The heart of the prosciutto.

  • Cumberland Sauce – An English sauce used for ham, game, and pâtés. The sauce is made of currant jelly mixed with lemon and orange juice and port wine.

  • Curry Powder – This is a mix of spices that we have come to know of by the Muslim variety found in stores. Yet this is a mixture that is unique to everyone’s kitchen. They may be mild with spices like cumin, fennel, and coriander; or heated up a bit with chiles and pepper; or fragrant with cinnamon and saffron. All of these are considered curry powders and all of them have distinctly different applications. Look under the definition for garam masala for more information.

  • Cuttlefish – A cousin to the squid, that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh.

  • Dacquoise – A cake made of nut meringues layered with whipped cream or buttercream. The nut meringue disks are also referred to as dacquoise.

  • Daikon – A large oriental radish with a sweet, fresh flavor. Can be as fat as a football but is usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Use raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cook in a variety of ways including stir-fry.

  • Dal – This is the Indian term for all varieties of dried beans, split peas, and lentils. There are many different varieties of dal, all of which have a specific use in Indian cooking.

  • – The Larousse Gastronomique describes a ‘darne’ as a transverse slice of a large raw fish, such as hake, salmon or tuna. 

  • Dashi – A Japanese fish stock made with dried bonito and kombu seaweed. This is used for soups, sauces, and marinades.

  • Daube – A stew consisting of a single piece of meat such as a shoulder or joint. The meat is stewed in a rich, wine laden broth with herbs and vegetables. The broth is then thickened, reduced and served with the slices of meat and accompanying vegetables.

  • Dauphine – The name for little puffs made of potato puree, that are mixed with choux paste and deep fried.

  • Dauphinoise – The name of a potato gratin with lots of cream and garlic, all topped with Gruyere cheese.

  • Deglaze – A process of adding liquid to a hot pan in order to collect the bits of food which stick to the pan during cooking. This is most common with saut‚ed and roasted foods. Wine, stock, and vinegar are common deglazing liquids.

  • Demi-Glace – A rich brown sauce comprised of espagnole sauce, which is further enriched with veal stock and wine and reduced to proper consistency. This is a very long procedure and requires constant skimming. A quick version of this involves reducing brown veal stock to which has been added Mirepoix, tomato paste, wine, and brown roux. The latter recipe saves time, but never reaches the intensity of flavor as does the former method. Due to the quantity and length of time required to prepare it, it is not usually made in the home. However it is available for home gourmands.

  • Devon Cream – Please see “Clotted Cream”

  • Dijonnaise – This is a name given to dishes that contain mustard or are served with a sauce that contains mustard.

  • Dim Sum – A selection of small dishes served for snacks and lunch in China. These dishes include a wide selection of fried and steamed dumplings, as well as, various other sweet and savoury items.

  • Ditalini – Short pasta tubes.

  • Dolma – A cold hors d oeuvre made of grape leaves stuffed with cooked rice, lamb, and onion. They are marinated with olive oil and lemon. Vegetarian versions of this are also made.

  • Dry Aging – A process usually referring to beef. This process not only adds flavor but tenderise the beef through enzyme action. Maximum flavor and tenderness is achieved in 21 days.

  • Duchess – The name for potato puree that is enriched with cream, then piped into decorative shapes and browned in the oven. They are often piped around the rim of a platter onto which a roast or whole fish may be served.

  • Durian – A large fruit from southeast Asia that has a creamy, gelatinous texture and a nauseating smell similar to that of stinky feet. The flesh is Savoyard by many from this area, but outsiders find it a difficult flavor to become accustomed.

  • Duxelle – Finely chopped mushrooms that are cooked in butter with shallots and wine. When cooked dry, duxelle make a good filling for omelettes, fish, and meat. They may also be moistened with wine or broth and served as a sauce. Duxelle are also flavoured with fresh herbs and brandy or Madeira.

  • Effiler – To remove the fibrous string from a string bean; to thinly slice almonds.

  • Egg Threads – Lightly beaten eggs that are poured slowly into a hot broth, creating irregular shaped threads used to garnish soups.

  • Emincer – To cut fruit into thin slices, shorter than for julienne. This term is most often used when referring to meats, but it also applies to fruits and vegetables.

  • Empanada – A small savoury pie from Spain and South America. Fillings may be made of meat, seafood, or vegetables. The fillings can be seasoned in many ways. Those from around Spain are flavoured with peppers, onions, and tomatoes. Those from South America have a sweet/sour undertone from the addition of raisins and green olives. Crusts may be made from bread dough or flaky dough like pate brisee and puff pastry. 

  • Entrecote – A steak cut from the rib section of beef. It is boneless and has a very thin layer of fat. Though steaks cut from the loin ends of the rib are a finer quality steak, the whole rib may be used for entrecete. The term is sometimes used referring to a strip steak. This is not an accurate description. This cut of beef is called the faux-filet or contre-filet. 

  • Escabeche – A highly seasoned marinade used to flavor and preserve food. Fish and chicken are the most common foods used for escabeche. First the meat is fried and placed in a dish large enough to hold all of the food in one layer. Then a marinade made of onions, peppers, vinegar, and spices is poured over the food while hot. The whole dish is then allowed to rest overnight and served cold.

  • Escalope – A thinly sliced food similar to a scallopine. This may consist of meat, fish, or vegetables.

  • Espagnole Sauce – This is the foundation of all of the brown sauces. A number of modifications have been made of this sauce since its conception. The sauce is now made of a rich brown veal stock thickened with a brown roux. The sauce is then simmered with a Mirepoix, bouquet garni, and wine. The long, slow cooking help to purify and concentrate its flavor. It is finally strained through very fine muslin. Demi-glace and glace de viande are all structured around a fine espagnole sauce.

  • Falafel – A Middle Eastern speciality consisting of small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly spiced, ground chickpeas. They are generally tucked inside pita bread, sandwich style, but can also be served as appetisers. A yogurt or tahini-based sauce is often served with falafel.

  • Farfalle – Bow tie shaped pasta.

  • Fava Bean – This tan, rather flat bean resembles a very large lima bean. It comes in a large pod which, unless very young, is inedible. Fava beans can be purchased dried, cooked in cans and, infrequently, fresh. If you find fresh fava beans, choose those with pods that are not bulging with beans, which indicates age. Fava beans have a very tough skin, which should be removed by blanching before cooking. They are very popular in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes. They can be cooked in a variety of ways and are often used in soups. Also called faba bean, broad bean and horse bean.

  • Feijoa – A fruit grown in New Zealand with a thin green skin and a flavor reminiscent of strawberry, banana, and pineapple.

  • Feijoada – A Brazilian dish very similar to cassoulet, made with black beans. Sausage, bacon, ham, and various cuts of pork are cooked in with the beans. The traditional accompaniments are plain white rice, cooked greens, fresh orange slices, and a very hot sauce, similar to pico de gallo, called molho carioca. Toasted cassava flour is used as a condiment, to be added by each diner. This too is a very substantial dish and needs little else to accompany it.

  • Fen Berry – Fen Berry is another name for a small variety of cranberry – also known as cram-berry, crawberry, moss-millions, sow-berry, sour-berry, marsh wort, bog-berry and swamp red-berry. It is found in many English recipes.

  • Fenugreek – A very hard seed grown in the Middle East, which is used as a spice. Its dominant flavor and aroma is recognisable in commercial curry powders. 

  • Fettuccine – Flat narrow pasta noodles less than wide and a bit thicker than tagliatelle.


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Seasoning

Cook'n Recipe Software


Seasonings include herbs and spices, which are themselves frequently referred to as “seasonings”.  However, Larousse Gastronomique states that “To Season And To Flavour Are Not The Same Thing”, insisting that seasoning includes a large or small amount of salt being added to a preparation.  Salt may be used to draw out water, or to magnify a natural flavor of a food making it richer or more delicate, depending on the dish. This type of procedure is akin to curing. For instance, sea salt (a coarser-grained salt) is rubbed into chicken, lamb, and beef to tenderise the meat and improve flavor. Other seasonings like black pepper and basil transfer some of their flavor to the food. A well designed dish may combine seasonings that complement each other.


Seasoning, Sauce & Marinade’s

Seasoning:

  1. Bacon Salt

Sauce:

  1. Homemade Mayo

  2. Homemade ’57 Sauce

  3. Julia Child’s Hollandaise Sauce

  4.  Homemade Soy Sauce

Marinade’s:


Submit A Recipe

 


How would you like to submit a recipe to Straight Outta My Kitchen well here’s a chance.  Follow the link Here and away you go.  Make to let me know if its a recipe you found or if’s your own creation so I can give credit where credit is due.  Make sure to share this with as many people as possible let’s see how many  we can get.


 

“Cool as a cucumber”

 


This expression is taken from a literal characteristic of the cucumber.  Being that the inside of a cucumber is actually 20 degrees cooler than their outsides.  All matter has properties of thermal conductivity which dictate how quickly heat will move through the matter. The thermal conductivity of a cucumber is incidentally reported at 0.62 W/m K.


 

Been Productive

 

Go and check Out http://straightouttamykitchen.co some major changes have been made

A submit A Recipe
Recipe Section
Downloadable Content In the Cooking Reference Section
New Video Up As well

Happy New Year and hope only the best for 2017

Fire works Victoria BC Canada Butchart gardens

2016 has a small window of life as 2017 creeps on it to unfold a new chapter in each and every one of our life’s.  I have definitely have had some majors downs this year with 4 family members passing on as well as a major break up with my significant other.  But with that being said even in the ash’s of such a devastating year I have been through I have some how along the lines have turned to blogging as a creative and proactive outlet.  I know that 2017 is a new start in the right direction So I want to wish everyone everywhere a very Happy New Year and hope only the best for 2017 

 

Cooking Hack #325

 


The edge of a bowl is not the right place to crack an egg! Cracking an egg on a flat surface, like your kitchen counter, will lead to a cleaner break—and reduce the chance of eggshells in your food


 

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